HomeDifferenceDifference Between TypeScript and Java Script -Type Script Vs Java Script

Difference Between TypeScript and Java Script -Type Script Vs Java Script

JavaScript is the most admired and used programming language for developing web applications. It is well thought out as the principal scripting language for websites, pages, and applications. Therefore, JavaScript can be used for both front-end and back-end development. This programming language has been around for a long time and has become a popular scripting language among developers.

But as we all know, in modern times, if one skill or language flourishes, then there’s a high possibility that an alternative will step into the market and offer tough competition. Concurrently, a new competitor has emerged in the market—TypeScript. But that doesn’t conclude that they are the same.

JavaScript, with its massive popularity, can be regarded as a superset of JavaScript, an improved version of JavaScript with some added features. It is an open-source programming language that was mainly introduced to help software developers quickly expand large-scale web applications in an ordered way. In a simple way, we can say that JavaScript + More Features = TypeScript.

Software developers who work on web development projects must have a good knowledge of these two languages. In this article, we will take a look at the features of both JavaScript and TypeScript and comprehend the aptitudes of these languages. We shall see how these languages are related to each other. The article would also highlight the key differences between JavaScript and TypeScript. Finally, we have included the advantages of JavaScript over TypeScript and vice-versa.

So Let’s begin the article by understanding what JavaScript and TypeScript are.

What is JavaScript?

Developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape, JavaScript is a client-end scripting language that is used to build interactive web applications. It was officially released on December 4, 1995. Since it adheres to the rules of client-end programming, it can be implemented flawlessly on the user’s web browser. However, it can also be executed for server-side scripting with the introduction of the Node.js extension. It is formally known as a scripting language, as, unlike other programming languages, the compilation of JavaScript is not done before its execution. Instead, every line or command of the program is interpreted one by one during runtime. The interpretation and execution of these scripts are done by the browser itself.

The primary principle of JavaScript was to build it as a complementary scripting language. It enables developers to create dynamic web applications, but it is not ideal for creating large-scale complex applications. It can write up to a few hundred lines of code for a particular application. JavaScript can be used alongside other technologies like XML and REST APIs.

Here are some of the unique features of JavaScript:

  • Flexible, dynamic, and cross-platform
  • Displays latest news updates
  • Accessible for both client-side and server-side
  • Contents can be altered without reloading the page
  • Supports JIT compilation
  • Lightweight interpretation
  • Validating user inputs
  • Weakly typed
  • Animated graphics
  • Supported by all browsers

What is TypeScript?

Typescript is an object-oriented, open-source programming language that was officially introduced on October 1st, 2012 by Anders Hejlsberg of Microsoft. It is a superset of JavaScript with additional features and optional typing. TypeScript came into being to overcome the downsides of JavaScript.

This programming language supports both dynamic and static typing and is used to write clear and brief JavaScript code. It fulfils the same requirements as JavaScript and hence can be used to create both client-side and server-side web applications. Before execution, TypeScript code can be transformed into JavaScript code using a TypeScript compiler or Babel.

The static typing feature of TypeScript verifies the accuracy of a variable type while compiling. It also enables detection of the type issues and resolves them during compile time. The library functions of JavaScript are compatible with TypeScript. TypeScript can be executed on Node.JS or any other browser that is compatible with ECMAScript 3 or its latest versions.

JavaScript is syntactically valid TypeScript, so TypeScript is nothing but an advanced version of JavaScript. This means that any valid .js file can be renamed to a .ts file and compiled along with other TypeScript files.

Here are some of the unique features of TypeScript:

  • Portable and Cross-platform
  • Assert signatures
  • Recursive type aliases
  • Supports JS libraries
  • Top-level await
  • Null coalescing
  • Easy to read and easy to debug
  • Optional chaining

Why is JavaScript required?

JavaScript is running all around the web. It is fairly impossible for developers to work without it. The preamble of JavaScript has opened the gate to a whole new world of interactive web pages. It has become an integral part of our daily browsing experiences as developers have been able to induce interaction and intricacy into their applications. It would be impossible for search engines, websites, e-commerce websites, content management systems, mobile applications, and responsive web design to work without it.

It is known to all that HTML is used to demonstrate the static content on a page while CSS is used to design the web pages. But it is JavaScript that makes these web pages interactive and even more attractive.

Below are some of the features that make JavaScript more significant:

  • JavaScript enables developers to accept and validate the user inputs.
  • It helps to display animations and dynamic content on a web page.
  • Other features like Hover interactivity, drop-down menus, etc., are available to the developer with the help of JavaScript.

Why is TypeScript required?

As discussed earlier, TypeScript is an open-source, object-oriented language that can be considered a superset of JavaScript. If TypeScript carries the same traits as JavaScript, then what is the need for TypeScript? The need for TypeScript was mainly to overcome the limitations of JavaScript.

TypeScript conquers the biggest concern with JavaScript; that is, an error in JavaScript can only be detected during runtime. Hence, the resulting application may contain bugs. This will further hinder the user experience. TypeScript eliminates this issue by checking for any errors at compile time. The optional static typing feature also helps TypeScript to remove the type issues and fix them during compile time. TypeScript offers vastly dynamic development gear for JavaScript IDEs and practices, like static checking.

Below are some of the features that make TypeScript more significant:

  • TypeScript doesn’t require any runtime surroundings and is well-convenient across a variety of browsers and operating systems.
  • It is used to develop applications on a large scale.
  • Besides having the features of JavaScript, it provides additional benefits as well. These make TypeScript pretty famous among developers.
  • Types are voluntary in TypeScript, and each JavaScript file can also be considered a valid TypeScript file.
  • It makes reading and debugging easier by simplifying the JavaScript code.

What are the benefits of JavaScript over TypeScript?

Even though TypeScript overshadows JavaScript in many parts yet there are some advantages that JavaScript possesses but Typescript doesn’t. Here are they:

  • Since JavaScript is a scripting language it can be implemented directly in a web browser whereas TypeScript has to be primarily compiled using a TypeScript compiler or Babel for the web browser to implement it.
  • JavaScript is more suitable for smaller projects and not TypeScript as the latter uses static typing, which takes an additional period of time to get compiled.
  • JavaScript, unlike TypeScript, is supported by all web browsers.

What are the benefits of TypeScript over JavaScript?

Since TypeScript is a super of JavaScript it exhibits numerous additional features that are not obtainable in JavaScript. Here are the several that TypeScript possesses but JavaScript doesn’t. Here are they:

  • TypeScript is preferred by developers for making large or complex applications. JavaScript, on the other hand, is favoured for smaller projects.
  • TypeScript provides the optional static typing feature, which is absent in JavaScript.
  • Identifying and fixing errors in TypeScript is easier than it is in JavaScript as the former allows easier code reformations.
  • Since TypeScript is a type-checked language, it enables web developers to write programmes self-assuredly without getting worried about errors.
  • Because of its optional static typing feature, TypeScript is more reliable than JavaScript.

What are the dissimilarities between TypeScript and JavaScript?

Now let’s look at the key differences between TypeScript and JavaScript in the following table:

Feature Comparison

Below we will see the fundamental differences between the two languages.

Parameter TypeScript JavaScript
Definition TypeScript is an object-oriented language that is a superset of JavaScript, combining some generic features of JavaScript with some additional features to reduce JavaScript’s complexity. JavaScript is a scripting language with superior functions for creating dynamic web pages.
Created By Anders Hejlsberg of Microsoft on October 1, 2012 Brendan Eich of Netscape on December 4, 1995
Maintained By Microsoft European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) International
Typing Type Strongly-Typed. It supports both static and dynamic typing Weakly-Typed. It only supports dynamic typing
Data Binding It operates concepts like interfaces and types to illustrate the data that is being employed. No such concept is seen in JavaScript
Environment It is a dominant and instinctive language that allows static typing. It is a simple language that develops code for compatibility, easy to comprehend and write.
Compilation A TypeScript code must be compiled A JavaScript code doesn’t require to be compiled
Servers It is especially used on the client-side It is used on both server-side and client-side
File Extensions .tsx and .ts .js
Npm Package Various Npm packages are available in TypeScript that either possesses a static type definition or an external one that is easy to install JavaScript allows developers to survey and formulate their code without any build step
Prototyping TypeScript uses prototyping feature Prototyping feature is not available in JavaScript
Community It consists of a smaller community of software developers It consists of a large community of software developers
Annotation Developers frequently annotate their TypeScript codes to get the latest features Annotation is not required in JavaScript
Used By TypeScript is used by companies and websites like Asana, Clever, Screen award JavaScript is used by companies and websites like Airbnb, Codecademy, Instagram

Code Comparison

We have taken a small program to add two numbers below. The following code snippet shows how the same piece of code appears in two different languages.

TypeScript

function add (a, b) {

return a+b;

}

var c = add(a, b);

console.log (‘The result is – ‘ + c);

JavaScript

function add (a, b) {

return a+b;

}

var c = add(a, b);

document.write (‘The result is – ‘ + c);

Conclusion

JavaScript is used by organizations with a skilled development team who want readable, clean, and precise code, while HTML is commonly used in conjunction with JavaScript codes to enhance webpage characteristics, so it is perfect for experienced web developers who want to work on a relatively small project.

TypeScript is more of a contemporary version of the JavaScript development language. JavaScript, on the other hand, is a scripting language that allows developers to create interactive web pages. TypeScript uses several modern-day models like types, live-bug checking, static typing, and interfaces to illustrate the data that is being used, whereas JavaScript doesn’t use any such models.

We can conclude, after having presented all the insights in this article, that both TypeScript and JavaScript have their pros and cons. We have looked at the basic definitions and features of TypeScript and JavaScript in this article, as well as the differences between these two languages. Hopefully, this article has helped you understand the differences between the two languages.

Vijay Singh Khatri
Vijay Singh Khatri
Graduate in Computer Science, specialized in Digital Marketing. I am very fond of writing tech articles and creating my own blog to teach my audience.

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