What is 5G? Everything You Need to Know About 5G

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By Sina Nasiri

We all have been hearing about the 5G network and how it’s going to change the world like never before. The same thing happened with 4G when it was first introduced back in 2015. But is it possible to have a high-speed internet connection that doesn’t require you to wait for hours to download a 20GB update of a game? Do we need a 5G connection in 2022? How is a 5G connection better than a 4G? Well, we all have been asking questions like these to ourselves for quite some time now. Today, we are going to discuss all major aspects of the 5G network and how it can be a turning point in cellular technology.

Starting with the most common question that comes to people’s mind is what is 5G? For starters, 5G is the 5th generation of cellular networks, which offers data transfer speeds up to 10Gbps. This speed is only theoretical, meaning the cellular network can reach a maximum 10Gbps of data transfer. Still, if you are using it and depending on various other conditions, you might not get exactly that much speed. Also, 5G can create better employment opportunities for the people living far away from main cities and need a high-speed network to connect with the world.

How Does a 5G Network Work?

To fully understand the working of a 5G network, you need to understand the previous generation of cellular networks. The first generation of cellular networks was all about voice transfer capabilities. It gives users the freedom to talk from anywhere, even in the car, and many luxury car brands did provide a telephone inside their vehicles. Then came 2G, which started the transfer of small texts using short-messaging-layer pieces. The text messages which you used to send using phones with Numpad were only made possible after the invention of 2G. After that, came the 3G cellular network, which made internet access on mobile phones a necessity.

On the other hand, we got 4G with all the features of the first three generations of cellular networks along with higher internet speeds. Currently, most of the cellular networks are operating with 4G technology. However, in some countries, 4G is still a pretty new technology and needs to be adapted. Also, most third-world countries are still relying on the slow 2G networks.

A conversation around 5G is the conversation that every tech enthusiast wants to have as many cellular networks are marketing it as a revolutionary network. But in truth, the 5G network works on the architecture which is made for the 4G network. Thus, it will make both 4G and 5G networks work together with central and local servers providing fast internet speed to users along with low latency in the application performance. There are two main components of 5G that are namely Radio Access Network and The Core Network. We will discuss these two technologies in the next section.

What Technology does the 5G Network Use?

The Radio Access Network holds different cells, towers, masts, and dedicated in-building and home systems to make it possible for mobile users to connect with the network. The new 5G connection will function in new millimeter-wave frequencies in which the connection range is concise. To make sure users get a continuous connection, small cells need to be distributed in clusters depending on the location where users require a connection. These small cells will complement the already arranged macro network and allow a better network coverage area.

The Core Network is basically the mobile exchange and data network which handles all the data and the internet connection. The 5G connection requires a complete redesign for better integration with the internet in addition to the cloud-based services. Moreover, 5G connection uses distributed servers across the network so it can lower the latency.

5G comes with new advanced features, including function virtualization and network slicing for several applications and services. All of these functionalities will be managed by the core network of 5G.

Network slicing is the smart method to segment the given network for a particular industry to use it at the optimal speed and as per their requirements. For example, with the use of 5G, emergency services could operate on a particular network slice, allowing a better connection and making it easier for them to connect with other users quickly.

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is the ability to provide network functions in real-time in the desired location within the operator’s cloud platform. These network functions are designed to run on dedicated hardware like firewalls and other essential components, which require encryption in the business premises. NFV enables 5G to have speed, efficiency, and agility to provide required bandwidth to the new businesses and for the latest applications.

Is the 5G Network Dangerous for Humans?

Whether 5G is dangerous for humans or not is something that has been in our minds for a long time now. With each new generation of cellular networks and WiFi that comes out and a new wave of fear-mongering health, claims start to surface.

People who don’t understand how cellular networks work think it causes radiation to spread in the atmosphere. According to them, with the increase in the cellular network’s speed, the radiation will grow. However, scientists who conducted various studies have finally said that the 5G network poses no harm to humans.

The WiFi signals and other cellular networks like 4G and 5G are classified as general radiation emitters, which fall under carcinogenic conditions. You might think it’s dangerous to have them around if they are carcinogenic but wait, the carcinogenic materials are the ones with negligible hazardous levels of the risk.

What is the Difference Between 4G and 5G?

By the end of 2021, more than 438 million users will be on a 5G connection, and most of them will be from First world countries. Given below are some of the key advantages of a 5G over 4G network:

  • 5G is 100 times faster than 4G. Yes, you read that right. 5G can reach up to 10-gigabit data transfer speed per second.
  • The network slicing will be much easier and more discrete. Thus, users with a specific sim will be able to enjoy better connectivity and much higher speed, and their speed won’t cut off due to the traffic in the network.
  • The 5G network employs high-end security measures to build better trust between customers and the network authorities.

Benefits of Using 5G Network

5G offers several benefits that can be helpful for both individuals and for businesses. Some of the key benefits of 5G are as follows:

  • Increase of Machine to Machine Communication

With the advancement of cellular networks, the communication between all the different devices that use the internet will require no human intervention at a scale that we have never seen before. This will lead to a new revolution in the industrial process where everything will be self-automated and machines will talk to each other and finish up the job without requiring humans to perform complex maneuvers. In addition to this, industries like agriculture, manufacturing along with many businesses where machines haven’t been introduced yet will soon be working with devices that are operated through a 5G connection.

  • Business Growth

Data is the modern wealth, and both the 5G and IoT will be working hand in hand to provide insights into various possibilities. Businesses will have a better understanding of their products and how customers feel when a product gets launched in the market. As a result, smart manufacturing in the industry will become possible, leading to cost-saving and better customer retention along with elevated customer experience.

  • New Technologies Will Be Available

5G will become a gateway for people to enter a whole new world of technology. With 5G, new technologies like virtual reality and augmented reality will be readily available. These technologies require high-speed data transfer bandwidths, which 5G can provide quite easily.

Impact of 5G in Real-World and How it Will Expand in the Coming Years?

Like we already said, 5G works in conjunction with 4G networks, which use a range of macrocells and small cells. Small cells work as mini base stations designed for the very localized coverage that usually ranges from 10 meters to a few hundred meters. The deployment of 5G will only work if small cells spread across the area lead to better connection and all-time availability of a 5G network.

5G connections will be using massive MIMO (multi-input and multi-output) antennas with a considerable number of antenna elements that will be used for sending and receiving data at the same time. It will allow more users to connect to a single network with little to no compromise of speed. In addition to this, the MIMO’s physical size will be pretty similar to that of 4G MIMO, but it will work with higher frequencies.

All the individual antennas will be a bit smaller in size, thus allowing MIMO to put more elements in the same physical case. All the devices that are going to use a 5G connection will have smaller built-in antennas than the ones used for supporting a 4G connection.

The 5G connection will have lower latency than any of its predecessors. If you are familiar with networking, you might have heard the term response time. For the 4G connection, the response time is 20-30ms, and with the 5G enhanced mobile network, it decreases to 4-5 ms. Lastly, when we have a pure 5G connection, then the response time will be 1ms. However, for the lower latency over the air interface, a new radio technique will be invented to minimize the time of delay through the radio and increase the network reliability.


5G technology is going to usher human civilization to a network that offers better performance and speed compared to the network technology being used today, i.e. 4G. In healthcare settings, 5G technology will enable doctors to monitor patients via connected devices while sitting in their offices. We can’t wait to get our hands on lightning-fast internet speed, and we are sure you too are excited about all the new changes 5G will bring to our daily lives.

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