A programming language is a computer language that programmers use to implement a piece of software to run on computers or to write a set of instructions to perform some task on a computer. In simple words, we can say that a language used by programmers to communicate with computers is called a programming language. With the help of programming languages, programmers can develop many types of applications, such as web, desktop, games, mobile, and many more. Many programming languages are available to do this task, such as C, C++, Java, Python, PHP, etc.
In addition, each programming language consists of two components: syntax and semantics. These are the language rules that a programmer has to follow to write a program. Once the programme is written, it is compiled and converted into machine code. As computers only understand machine language, transforming it into machine code is necessary. This article will discuss all the essential topics of a programming language, such as its history, the need for programming languages, the top programming languages to learn, and many more. I hope this article helps you understand the concepts clearly.
History of Programming Languages
As we discussed earlier, programming languages are used to communicate with computers. The sets of instructions that are given to a computer to perform some task are written in programming languages. If we talk about the history of programming languages, the first-ever programming language was written by Ada Lovelace, a mathematician, in 1843. It was a machine algorithm, and Ada wrote it for Charles Babbage’s Difference Machine. This invention was considered the foundation for all programming languages.
At that time, programming languages were complicated machine codes. In 1949, to simplify the complexity of machine code, assembly language was created. It was a low-level programming language used in the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). In the same year, another language, Shortcode, was invented. It was considered the first high-level language for the electronic computer. The first compiled computer programming language was Autocode, developed by Alick Glennie in 1952.
John Backus created FORTRAN, another programming language, in 1957. The primary motivation for this advancement was to perform high-level scientific, mathematical, and statistical computations. FORTRAN is still used on advanced supercomputers today. ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) was created in 1958. ALGOL was regarded as the starting point for the development of several important programming languages, including Pascal, C, C++, and others.
After that, many changes were made to programming languages. Many new languages were created, with the majority of them based on the concepts of older programming languages. They made programmers’ jobs easier and more straightforward by adding new programming features. Today, there are thousands of programming languages that have evolved into an essential component of computer programming.
Why do you need Programming Languages In Computers?
Programming languages act as a bridge between a human being and a computer. We all know that computers can not understand human languages. If we want to perform some task on a computer, we have to give instructions that the computer can understand. Programming languages allow us to provide those instructions in a way that a computer can understand. There are many programming languages available for this purpose. Each language has its own distinct features, along with some standard features as well.
Furthermore, programming languages enable developers to create more complex programmes with fewer resources. Programming languages support programming in all areas, from computational science to artificial intelligence applications. Furthermore, programming languages enable developers to create software that is independent of the operating system. Users will be able to run the software on any device or platform as a result of this. Furthermore, programming languages enable a developer to automate a task that he must perform repeatedly. Many programming language features, such as loops, functions, events, and so on, can be used to accomplish this.
With the help of programming languages, all computer software problems can be quickly resolved. Almost everything that we can do on computers is only possible because of programming languages. Computer programs run on every laptop, and programming languages are the basis of those programs. All types of programs, such as scheduling software, online games, virtual reality, and many more, can be made with the help of programming languages. The programming languages used in these programmes help the computers perform tasks accurately and efficiently.
Furthermore, computer technology has developed rapidly, and programmers are working on learning new ways to communicate with computers. This led to the development of new programming languages because they allow computers to execute tasks on time at high speeds. After discussing all this, we can say that programming languages are an essential part of computers and help computers efficiently perform several tasks.
Different types of Programming Languages
If we talk about the types of programming languages, there are thousands of programming languages available now, and each language has its own syntax and purpose. Every programming language has its own syntax for writing a programme or any specific application. According to their syntax and purpose, these languages can be classified into three categories: machine language, assembly language, and high-level language. Both machine and assembly languages are also known as low-level languages. Let’s discuss them in detail.
1. Machine Language
Machine language is the oldest programming language and is also called the “fundamental language of computers.” It is a low-level programming language that is sometimes called machine code or object code. A machine language consists of numeric codes known as binary digits 0 and 1. A computer directly executes these binary digits to perform an operation, and there is no need to translate the code. It is difficult for a human being to understand this code, but it can be easily understood and read by a computer system.
Furthermore, there is no need for compilers and interpreters in this type of language, so machine language programmes run very fast. But there are some disadvantages to this language also. It is a complex language, and it is not easy to write programmes in this language. We cannot use a programme written in machine language on another computer because it is not portable. The maintenance of programmes written in machine language is also very high.
2. Assembly Language
The Assembly language is also a low-level programming language. It is an extended form of machine language. In assembly language, instructions are written in symbolic code instead of binary code. Symbolic codes are human-readable codes such as sub, add, mul, etc., where sub is used for subtraction, add is used for addition, mul is used for multiplication, and many more codes are used that can be easily understood by a human being. Because of the use of this symbolic code, this language is also known as a low-level symbolic language.
In addition, it is an easy task for a programmer to find errors in programmes written in assembly language because they are easier to find and correct. Moreover, programmers don’t need to track the storage location of the data. Instructions in the programmes can be easily corrected and modified also. But there is a need for a translator in this language because computers can only understand the machine code.
Assembler is used in the assembly language to convert the assembly code into machine code. A programmer must understand the logical structure of the computer on which he is working in order to write a programme in assembly language.Just like machine language, assembly language code is also not portable. Some examples of assembly languages are ADA, PASCAL, etc.
3. High-Level Language
High-level languages are closer to human beings than other machine-level languages. All the old programming languages had portability issues. It was difficult for a programmer to transfer the programme to other machines. To resolve this issue, high-level languages were developed. Code is independent of a computer system in high-level languages and can be easily transferred to other systems. Furthermore, the syntax of high-level languages is user-friendly. Any human being can easily understand it. It is easy for a programmer to write a programme in a high-level language, and it is also a less time-consuming process.
Moreover, it is an easy task for a programmer to detect and remove errors in high-level languages. A large number of built-in functions are also provided in these languages that can be used in the fast development of a program. But the high-level language programmes are less efficient because more time and memory is needed to execute a program. A translator programme is also required in high-level languages to translate the source code into machine code. Some examples of high-level languages are FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, C, C++, Java, etc.
Top 10 Programming Languages to learn In 2022
There are so many programming languages available today that are used for different purposes, and it isn’t easy to decide which language to learn to excel in your career. Many factors need to be considered to determine which one to choose, such as popularity and demand, career opportunities, time, money, etc. Let’s discuss some popular programming languages that you can consider for better growth in this field. Here is the list.
Python is a modern, general-purpose, server-side language. You can call Python the future of programming languages. There are many reasons behind the popularity of Python. First of all, it is an easy-to-learn language, so it is the best choice for beginners in this field. There are many areas in which Python is used, such as web development, software programming, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and many more. Furthermore, it is a free, open-source programming language. Python also has an extensive set of libraries and frameworks that are useful in different types of applications.
There are other features that make Python the programmer’s first choice, such as easy integration with web services, GUI-based desktop applications, automatic garbage collection, user-friendly data structures, and many more. Programming in Python becomes more accessible and more efficient because of its popular frameworks like Django, Flask, and Pyramid. Many famous companies are using Python in their applications, such as Intel, Facebook, Spotify, etc. As a result, Python will be the most popular programming language to learn in 2022.
Java is another popular programming language that many popular organisations around the world use. The trendy concept of Java, “write once, run everywhere,” makes it the best choice for developing applications. Because it allows programmers to run Java programmes on any platform that supports Java without recompiling the code, it is also considered the primary language behind Android applications. So, if you’re interested in Android development, you can start with Java.
Moreover, you can also develop web, desktop, cloud, and scientific applications with the help of Java. The object-oriented features of Java make the applications more productive and secure as well. Java can be used as a server-side language for back-end development projects. All these above-mentioned features make it a universal language. Many big names that are using Java in their projects are Amazon, Adobe, Flipkart, Instagram, etc.
Kotlin is a general-purpose, cross-platform, statically typed programming language. This language supports both functional and object-oriented programming. If you are new to programming, you can start with Kotlin.It is compatible with the Java language, and all the Java libraries are supported by it. If we make a comparison between Java and Kotlin, then we can say that coding in Kotlin is much less than in Java. Further, its enhanced security features also make it popular among programmers.
Kotlin is also the fastest-growing programming language, with more than 60% of Android developers. In developing Android, web, server-side, desktop, and other online applications, Kotlin is the best choice. Most of the Google applications are based on Kotlin. Some popular names that are using Kotlin in their applications are Pinterest, Uber, Trello, etc. If you are willing to make your career in Android development, then Kotlin is the best choice.
PHP is an open-source, general-purpose, server-side programming language. You can easily embed PHP with HTML to access the database and add more functionalities to the web pages. It is considered faster than other scripting languages. Moreover, programmers don’t use PHP only to write server-side scripts but also write command-line scripts in applications. It is also a simple and easy-to-learn language and has a large dedicated online community, which makes it popular among developers. Its cross-platform compatibility and object-oriented programming features make it even more popular.
Go is one of the fastest-growing programming languages and was designed by Google in 2007. It is also a reliable and efficient programming language that is simple to learn and understand. Go can be used to handle massive codebases. Programmers mostly use Go in the development of large projects. It is also a strictly typed language, and its syntax is similar to that of the C language. The multithreaded feature of Go makes it capable of being used in distributed systems, cloud computing, and many other applications.
Moreover, automation processes are also supported by Go. It also promotes the development of artificial intelligence and data science processes. Many fundamental problems in programming, such as slow compilation and execution, can be easily overcome with the help of God. Many big companies use Go in their applications, such as the BBC, Medium, Google, etc. The future of this language is bright, so you can surely think of learning it.
R provides excellent support for managing data and is widely used in the data analytics field. It also has great importance in the financial and telecom sectors. Many big companies are using this language for their applications, such as Google, Uber, LinkedIn, etc. If you are interested in the fields of data science and machine learning, then this language is worth learning.
8. C And C++
Furthermore, both C and C++ are widely used on different platforms and are considered high-performance languages. In applications where performance is a much-needed factor, both C and C++ are used. Large IT companies, such as Microsoft, Oracle, Adobe, etc., are hiring C and C++ developers. To build a successful career in the IT industry, it is an excellent choice to learn C and C++.
C# is another popular object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft. This programming language runs on the.NET framework and can easily be integrated with all.NET libraries. If you have a basic understanding of writing code, then you can quickly learn this language. It is also a well-designed, cross-platform language and is best suited for Windows, Android, and iOS applications. The object-oriented features of this language help in making scalable applications. You can effectively use C# in games and server-side development.
Furthermore, it is an open-source language with an extensive set of libraries, making this language faster and more efficient. Many popular websites, such as Dell, Bing, and Visual Studio, use this language in the back-end. Topmost companies, such as Microsoft, Accenture, Stack Overflow, etc., are also using C# in their applications. If you choose C# for learning, then it will provide you with many good opportunities in your career.
Another popular programming language that you can learn is Swift. It is an open-source programming language designed by Apple in 2014. It is an easy-to-learn language and requires fewer coding skills as compared to other programming languages. This language is used to create applications for iOS, watchOS, macOS, Linux, and many more. The precise syntax of Swift with fewer coding lines makes it popular among programmers.
In addition, Swift is also one of the few languages that supports both front-end and back-end development. As a result, if you choose to learn this language, you will have more career options.Popular iOS apps such as WordPress, Mozilla Firefox, and SoundCloud are built using Swift. Many famous companies, such as Apple, Instagram, Uber, etc., also use this language in their applications. So, if you want to create apps for iPhones, iPads, and macOS, Swift is an excellent choice.
What Is the Future of Programming Languages?
After discussing the importance of programming languages in computers and the most popular languages that you can learn for a better career, it is time to discuss the future of programming languages. As we know, programming languages act as an interface to communicate with computers, and computers are an essential part of our daily lives.
Furthermore, the evolution of different programming languages has a significant impact on software developers and programmers. The new advanced features of programming languages make them more productive and efficient. Programming languages also assist them in the creation of various types of applications, such as web, Android, games, and many others.If you are good at multiple programming languages, then it allows you to work on different types of projects.
Today, most businesses depend so much on programmes for many of their many tasks, such as transactions, customer service, sales, and many more. Many industries, such as science, aircraft, and medicine, need accurate and fast programmes for execution. All these growing needs can be fulfilled with the help of programming languages, so they have become an essential part of modern technology. Finally, we can say that the demand for programming languages will increase in the future as well, and they will continuously be the foundation of the information technology and data science industries.
In this article, we have discussed a variety of programming languages in detail. After reading this article, we are sure that you must have got a good understanding of what a programming language is and how you can use it in application development. Programming languages help you with different tasks, such as increasing and enhancing the power of computers, finding mobile app solutions, effectively working on the internet, and many more. In short, we can say that programming languages have now become an essential part of our lives. Programming languages provide you with better career options too. Whether it is mobile app development, gaming application development, or searching a database, you can do everything with programming languages. Several programming languages are available, and you can learn any of them quickly according to your choice.
In addition, programming languages provide you with flexible job options. A computer programmer can work from anywhere, at any time. Programming languages also enhance your problem-solving skills, which further helps companies develop robust systems. Lastly, there are substantial salary packages in this field, so if you become a good programmer, you can also get financial independence. I hope this article helps you understand a growing number of programming languages.