What is Artificial Intelligence? How Does AI Work?

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By Vijay Singh Khatri

Nowadays, machines are smart enough to comprehend verbal orders, recognize pictures, drive vehicles, and assist customers better than humans do. The knowledge exhibited by machines to achieve these tasks is known as artificial intelligence, and it is a revolution that is taking the world by storm. It is the reenactment of natural intelligence in machines that are modified to learn and mirror the activities of humans.

These machines can learn with experience and perform tasks just like humans. As AI keeps on developing, it will significantly have a large impact on our day-to-day lifestyle. It’s nevertheless common for people to associate with AI innovation in one way or another, may it be as a user seeking intelligence, or an individual doing voice research via Alexa, Siri, or Bixby.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence is a technology that allows machines to accomplish tasks that typically require human intelligence based on various instances of datasets.

It is achieved by the programming machines that are customized to think like humans. The term may likewise be applied to any machine that displays characteristics related to a human brain, for example, learning and critical thinking. Here are some key points to note about artificial intelligence:

  • It is the simulation of human intelligence in machines.
  • Every AI model performs basic actions such as learning, reasoning, and perception by processing the way the human brain does.
  • Nearly every industry is adopting the use of AI for performing and automating simple as well as complex tasks.

Among various subsets of AI, machine learning is taking the game even higher and alludes to the idea that computers can naturally learn and adjust to new information without the assistance of humans. Similarly, deep learning strategies empower this automatic learning process through the assimilation of the enormous amount of various inputs such as unstructured data, pictures, or video.

Following are regular ways in which individuals interact with AI:

  1. Search engines utilize artificial intelligence and algorithms for ensuring that users get the appropriate results for their searches.
  2. Email marketing strategies utilize AI for structuring the email flow and determining who to send mail based on their interaction on the website.
  3. Paid advertising platforms such as Google Ads and Facebook ads use AI for ensuring that ads are displayed to the right audience based on interactions, demographics, etc.
  4. Online chatbots on websites for assisting customers with basic problems and solving their problems immediately and efficiently.
  5. The voice search makes the use of artificial intelligence to interpret the words and provide results based on keywords, previous searches, and various other factors

Types of AI Machines

1. Reactive machines

Reactive machines are the most basic type of AI systems that are only reactive. They don’t make use of any sort of previous experiences or data inputs for making decisions. It makes similar decisions and is used for automating repetitive and manual processes by making optimal moves.

These machines have programs that work in real-time and make decisions on what they see directly. They are efficient to deploy only in certain areas such as games, and cannot be used for complex situations where more intelligence is required. Also, their horizon is specific and they are completely unable to work beyond the specific tasks they’ve been assigned.

2. Limited memory

These machines are comparatively more intelligent and utilize past experiences for making better decisions. One such example of this is self-driving cars, which feed on lots of data to improve their performance on the roads. They also take the speed and direction of other cars as inputs to process everything in real-time and conclude results.

These types of machines also come with preprogrammed representations of the world, so that they can make dynamic and quick decisions. For example, the configuration of lane markings, traffic lights, and other things in self-driving cars. Several datasets and tiny pieces of information stored in these machines are for the longer term. They get saved as an experience, just like a human brain stores all small and big information and compiles those experiences over years to conclude better decisions.

3. Theory of mind

These AI-based machines are the crossroads of the machines developed in history and the ones we will build in the future. These machines come with advancements and have representations about the world and other entities such as users themselves. In psychology, it is known as the “theory of mind”, which means understanding the emotional and mental factors of individuals in the world and then behaving or making the decisions accordingly.

The need for this is crystal clear. Machines without catching the motives and intentions of the individuals and without taking into account the environment and surroundings will never be able to make strong and impactful decisions. If artificial intelligence has to work with us hand-in-hand in the future, it is certainly crucial for AI-powered machines to understand the thoughts, feelings, and expectations of humans and then adjust their responses.

4. Self-awareness

Models based on self-awareness are at an extremely initial phase but they are the future. These models eliminate human interaction to a greater extent and learn everything from itself right from the scratch. Consciousness or “self-awareness” is awareness about internal states and the ability to predict the feelings of other people.

A fully-fledged self-awareness model is yet very far from discovery, but still, there are a lot of things engineers are focusing on to eventually build these models such as advancements in memory, learning, and decision-making. After all, the execution of human intelligence in machines requires a lot of things to do, and also mandatory for building models that can classify everything in real-time and learn on their own.

How Artificial Intelligence Works?

AI makes the use of certain responses, algorithms, and historical data for creating propensity models through which machines learn how to react to specific conditions and drive conclusions. Keeping in mind that machines are prepared to ascend and control over, humans are as yet required to do a lot of work. Predominantly, we use AI to save us time such as adding individuals to email mechanization and permitting AI to do a large part of the work to divide the load and save manual efforts as well.

The basic approach for every AI model is to combine all the datasets received and iterate the processes by using intelligent algorithms. This enables software to develop responses automatically from patterns created from data. However, AI is very broad and comprises a lot of technologies along with several subfields, therefore, for deeply understanding how it works, one should dive deep into various sub-domains mentioned below:

1. Machine Learning

ML is the science of teaching computers how to make decisions based on previous experiences just like humans do. It makes the use of patterns, impressions, and analyzes past data along with various data points for reaching the best possible conclusions without much human interference. This automates the process of achieving specific goals and saving tons of human time and manual effort that can be used in other important areas of the business.

2. Deep Learning

Deep learning is a subset of machine learning but provides even better and precise results by processing millions of data points and using complex mathematical calculations and algorithms. It takes all types of unstructured/structured data for efficient decision-making abilities. It utilizes deep neural networks for processing the data just like human brains and provides perfect conclusions for every task. However, deep learning models take more time as compared to machine learning but they keep on improving the result accuracy over time.

3. Neural Networks

Neural Networks are a series of algorithms that function just like neural cells in the human brain do. They are used for recognizing relationships among various underlying variables for processing information just like a human brain. Neural networks adopt even the quickly changing inputs in order to generate perfect results for redesigning the output criteria.

4. Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing or NLP helps humans and machines to understand, interpret, and interact with each other. After the machine successfully understands what humans are trying to convey, it processes the required output. In simple words, it teaches how to program computers for processing large amounts of natural language data.

5. Computer Vision

Computer vision teaches computers or machines to interpret and understand the visual and graphic world, such as understanding images, videos, and other visual content. Therefore, machines would be able to take visual inputs as well for processing better outputs.

6. Cognitive Computing

Cognitive computing algorithms are used for solving complex situations in which answers are expected to be ambiguous and uncertain. They are also based on a human brain mechanism of determining text/speech/images/objects for processing the desired output.

Purpose of Artificial Intelligence

The motivation behind artificial intelligence is to help humans in making more reasonable choices for better outcomes. That is the appropriate response from a specialized viewpoint. From a philosophical viewpoint, artificial intelligence can possibly help people enjoy more simplified lives without hard work, and help deal with the mind-boggling web of interconnected people, organizations, states, and countries to work in a way that is valuable to the entirety of mankind.

Presently, the reason for artificial intelligence is shared by every one of the various instruments and methods that we’ve imagined in the course of recent years – to enhance human capabilities and to help them settle on better choices. AI has likewise been promoted as our final invention, a creation that would develop pivotal instruments and administrations that would dramatically change how we lead our lives while eliminating difficulty, imbalance, and human anguish.

However, we’re yet far from those sorts of results. Right now, artificial intelligence is being utilized generally by organizations to improve their cycle efficiencies, automate hefty assignments. It also enables organizations to make predictions on the basis of information rather than relying on gut feelings. Likewise, with all innovation that has preceded this, the innovative work costs should be financed by companies and government offices before it gets deployed in the process.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence

1. Health monitoring

An individual’s condition of wellbeing is a continuous cycle, contingent upon the shifting levels of their particular vitals details. With wearable gadgets becoming popular nowadays, the use of AI for monitoring health gets more traction. Since crucial signs can possibly foresee wellbeing variances even before the patient knows, there is a great deal of life-saving applications.

2. Better recommendations

This is normally the primary model that comes to mind when it comes to the use of artificial intelligence in business organizations. It is said that AI has conveyed incredible outcomes in this area of helping businesses. Most online businesses have joined artificial intelligence to make item suggestions that may help customers get what they want and eventually allow businesses to have more sales.

3. Customer assistance

Artificial intelligence empowers robots for assisting clients regarding all their concerns. Preventing customers from going extra steps or waiting to get their chance for end customer support. These robot models make use of Natural Language Processing to interface with clients insightfully just like humans. The more these models cooperate with people, the more efficiently they help customers to get their issues resolved

4. Chatbots

Another renowned application, in view of the expansion of artificial intelligence, is chatbots that are widely used across enterprises in all industries and many websites. These chatbots serve ​clients in odd-hours and pinnacle hours too, eliminating the bottleneck of restricted support.

5. Surgeries

Mechanical medical procedures have very few chances of errors and can reliably do medical procedures nonstop without getting depleted. Since they work with a serious level of precision, they are less obtrusive than traditional surgeries, which possibly decreases the time patients spend in the hospitals waiting for their turn.


Artificial intelligence was introduced for performing tasks that typically require human interference. Its main motive is to automate manual and repetitive tasks that exhaust individuals. By programming computers in a certain way and feeding them necessary data, these machines efficiently perform various actions along with improving their own abilities day by day. Nowadays, they are being utilized in lots of areas such as search engines, voice assistants, digital advertisements, social media, etc. for providing users with better outcomes based on previous experiences.

There are four types of artificial intelligence presently known as reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind, self-awareness. The first type is the most basic type of AI through which we can only achieve specific tasks. Whereas the last one is still in the inception phase and requires a lot of development and advancements. Every AI model utilizes responses, algorithms, and past interactions for empowering machines to react to specific conditions to drive conclusions. They combine all the datasets and structure them by utilizing intelligent algorithms and solving mathematical equations.

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