What is Internet Protocol (IP)? How does it Work?

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By Vijay Singh Khatri

Internet Protocol (IP) is the technique or protocol that is in charge of transferring data from one PC to the next on the internet. Every computer, also known as a host, has at least one IP address that interestingly distinguishes it from all other remaining PCs on the Internet. IP is the set of protocols that empower the modern Internet. IP was initially introduced in May 1974.

At the core of what is generally known as IP are the transport protocols that empower the real communication between various hosts. It is the primary protocol that is reliable for spikes in IP demand, and it is the reason IP is abbreviated as TCP/IP. In any case, TCP isn’t the primary protocol essential for IP.

How does Internet Protocol Work?

When data is exchanged, like an email or a website page, the message is classified into chunks, also known as packets. Every packet carries both the source’s internet address and the recipient’s address. Any parcel is sent first to a gateway PC that determines a small part of the Internet. The gateway computer peruses the objective address and sends the packet to an adjoining gateway that further examines the destination address, etc., until one gateway perceives the packet as having a place with a computer inside its nearby area (or domain). Furthermore, it forwards the packet to the PC whose address has been determined.

Since a message is separated into various packets, every one of them can, if required, be sent by an alternate course across the Internet. Packets can appear in an unexpected order in comparison to the request they were sent with. The Internet Protocol conveys them. The Transmission Control Protocol depends on another protocol to return them to the correct request.

Different types of Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocols are further divided into different categories with different usages:-

1. TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

There are a number of common principles that allow different types of computers to communicate with one another. The IP protocol ensures that every computer connected to the Internet has a unique serial number known as an IP address. TCP specifies how data is transmitted over the Internet and how IP packets should be split down. It also ensures that the packets contain information about the message data’s source, goal, and the order in which the message data should be re-accumulated.

2. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

For transmitting and circulating outgoing messages, SMTP protocols are essential. In this way, it extracts the recipient’s email ID from the message’s header and inserts the message into the active mail line. Also, it conveys when the mail is delivered to the outgoing list.

3. PPP(Point to Point Protocol)

It is a communication protocol utilized to establish a direct link between two conveying devices. This protocol defines the principles that two devices will use to verify and exchange data with one another. For instance, a user who has linked their computer with an internet service provider also uses the PPP. Additionally, for interfacing two routers for direct communication, it utilizes PPP.

4. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

This protocol is utilized for moving files from one system to the next. This functions in a client-server model. Whenever a machine requests a transfer of files from another machine, the FTO establishes a connection between the two and affirms each other using their ID and password. What’s more, the ideal file move happens between the machines.

5. SFTP(Secure File Transfer Protocol)

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) over Secure Shell is referred to as SFTP, sometimes known as SSH FTP (SSH). The reason for this is the secure encryption of both orders and data while they are in transit. SFTP encrypts files and information before sending them over a secure shell data stream, most likely as a supplement to SSH. This protocol is used to connect to various systems remotely while executing orders from the order line.

6. HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol)

This protocol is used to send hypertext across the Internet and is distinguished by the www (World Wide Web) for data transmission. This protocol lays forth how data should be organised and transmitted. It also outlines the various steps that internet browsers should take in response to requests to see a given web page. When a client opens their web browser, they are implying that they will use HTTP, as this is the protocol that is used to share text, images, and other media documents on the internet.

7. HTTPS(HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure)

HTTPS is an expansion of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTPS is mainly reliable for providing a secure and reliable network connection over a PC network with the SSL/TLS protocol for encryption and verification. Along these lines, a site has an HTTP protocol; however, assuming the site is to such an extent that it gets some sensitive data, for example, credit and debit card details, OTP, and so on, then it requires an SSL authentication installed to make the site safe for users. Along with this, before entering any delicate data on a site, we ought to check if the connection is HTTPS or not. If it isn’t HTTPS, entering sensitive data may not be secure.

8. TELNET(Terminal Network)

TELNET is a standard TCP/IP protocol utilised for virtual terminal assistance given by ISO. This enables one local machine to interface with another. The PC associated with it is known as a “far off PC,” and the one that is interfacing is known as the “local computer.” TELNET activity allows us to show anything performed on the local computer’s remote PC. This works on the client/server rule. The telnet client service is utilised by the local computer, whereas the remote computer utilises the telnet server program.

9. POP3(Post Office Protocol 3)

POP3 represents Post Office Protocol version 3. It consists of two Message Access Agents (MAAs). Whereas the first one is the client MAA (Message Access Agent), the second one is the server MAA (Message Access Agent) for getting to the messages from the mailbox. This protocol assists us with recovering and handling messages from the mailbox on the recipient mail server to the beneficiary’s computer. This is suggested between the receiver and the receiver’s mail server.

IP Packets

While IP describes the protocol responsible for the development of data around the Internet, the unit that is responsible for the actual movement is the IP packet. An IP packet resembles a basic package or a letter with an envelope showing the address data and the data held inside.

The envelope of an IP packet is known as the header. The packet header gives the data expected to course the bundle to its destination.An IP packet header is finally dependent upon 24 bytes and incorporates the source IP address, the objective IP address, and information about the size of the entire packet. The other main component of the IP packet is the data section, which can change in size. The data inside an IP packet is mainly the transmitted content.

IP Address

IP gives systems that empower various systems to link and exchange data. Recognizing that each machine in an IP network is assigned an IP address DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is responsible for allocating the IP address. Because Internet service providers can use DHCP, it is ultimately responsible for assigning a public IP address to a specific device. A public IP address is available on the public Internet. A local IP address can be conveyed via DHCP that runs on a local connection switch. Thus, it provided the address that clients could access on an equivalent local network.


To conclude, Internet protocol has brought a revolution in the internet world. Like the conventional method, you need the correct IP address of a system to connect to and transfer the data to another system. Similarly, just as a letter gets a stamp to guarantee it arrives at the proper beneficiary, data packets get an IP address. The thing that separates an IP address from a postal address is that they do not correspond with a specific location. Perhaps both are manually delegated to organised devices during the set-up of the connection.

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